Exercise 1. Comment upon the meaning of modal verbs. Translate into Russian (can, may).

1. "Can't you sleep, Signor Tenente?" he asked. "No." "I can't sleep, either." (Hemingway)2. Alice: I'll come too if I may. (Gow and D’Usseau)3. I said, "I am Martin Lynchgibbon. We have met before, though you may have forgotten. Palmer asked me to meet you. May I carry something?" (Murdoch)4. "She cannot have heard of her father's death," said Braybrooke. "But she had! For I expressed my sympathy and she thanked me." (Hichens) 5. It was not many hours ere he, Esmond, was in London, of that you may be sure, and received with open arms by the old Dowager of Chesley... (Thackeray)6. Darling, I'm sorry I was so drunk yesterday... I may have seemed churlish, but don't think I'm not deeply grateful for your concern. I may yet need your help... (Murdoch)7. Julia: Why is she coming home? Maude: I don't know... I suppose she got fed up with Paris after five years. She couldn't have had much fun. (Taylor) 8. Howard: Lieutenant, may I ask a question? (Gow and D’Usseau)9. "Can I possibly have made a mistake?" she thought. (Forster)10. Oh, this house, this house! I come back to it after twenty-three years and it is just the same... really. Hesione might at least have been here: some preparation might have been made for me. (Shaw)11. "He may not even know I'm here." (Forster)12. They can't understand the English language, anyway. (Hemingway)

Exercise 2. Insert may (might), can (could) or the contracted forms of may not, might not, cannot, could not (mayn't, mightn't; can't, couldn't). Translate into Russian.

1. "There is a man I know," I said; "you __ have met him, a man named Longrush." (Jerome K. Jerome)2. He noticed at once that her manner was as natural almost as a frank, manly schoolboy's,... there __ never (he thought] have been a grain of affectation in her. (Hichens) 3. I _ - neither lie comfortably in bed nor find anything to do with myself if I got up. (Murdoch)4. She jumped up when she saw me and said, "Really, I think she __ have waited a bit before dismantling the house!" (Murdoch)5. I beg the Magistrate's pardon, but __ I request a few minutes private conversation with him on a matter of deep importance to himself? (Dickens)6. "You are a sworn constable?" "I be, sir." "Then pursue the criminal at once, with assistance, and bring him back here. He — have gone far." (contracted) (Hardy) 7. I said, "__ I help you?" (Murdoch)8. "Perhaps," said the Captain, "you __ have heard your head governor mention my name?" (Dickens)9. "She's gone, she's gone! Your Heathcliff's run off with her!" gasped the girl. "That is not true!" exclaimed Linton, rising in agitation. "It — not be: how has the idea entered your head? Ellen Dean, go and seek her. It is incredible: it __ not be." (E. Bronte) 10. "I didn't say he wasn't a colonel," he said, "he __ have been once for all I know. After all, he's almost forty." (Benson)II. Catherine's cup was never filled: she __ neither eat nor drink (E. Bronte) 12. Oh, welf, you __ be right. I don't know. I'm not going to try to explain or adjust myself now. (Dreiser)13. "Old Callendar wants to see me at his bungalow", he said not rising. "He — have the politeness to say why." (Forster)

Exercise 3. Translate into English using the verbs can and may whenever possible.

1. He может быть, чтобы она прочла эту книгу за два дня; она, возможно, только просмотрела ее. 2. «Не может быть, чтобы вы потеряли билет, вы могли положить его в карман».—«Нет, я могла выронить его в трамвае». 3. Не может быть, чтобы он уже приехал, я получила телеграмму только вчера. 4. Неужели он уже получил мое письмо? 5. Неужели он не получил моего письма? 6. Ваши часы, возможно, спешат; не может быть, чтобы сейчас было девять часов. 7. Он не мог получить книгу, потому что библиотека была закрыта. 8. Не может быть, чтобы он получил книгу, ведь библиотека была закрыта. 9. Не могли ли бы вы дать мне эту книгу дня на два? 10. Нет, я не верю этому, не может быть, чтобы она меня обманула. 11. Я останусь дома; она, возможно, будет мне звонить. 12. Право, Джордж, ты мог бы помочь мне нести этот тяжелый чемодан, разве ты не видишь, как мне это тяжело? 13. «Где ключ?» — «Не знаю, Ольга могла взять его с собой по ошибке». — «Не может быть, чтобы она его взяла, у нее ничего не было в руках, когда она уходила». 14. Наконец-то вы пришли! Вы могли прийти пораньше, ведь вы же знали, что я больна.

Exercise 4. Comment on the meaning of modal verbs. Translate into Russian.

1. I have brought back your man —not without risk or danger; but every one must do his duty. (Hardy)2. "May I escort you home?" he said. (Hichens) 3. Blanche: I'm sorry. I must have lost my head for a moment. (Tennessee Williams) 4. "There must be something wrong somewhere," he said w-ith a solemn, dejected movement of his head. (Caldwell)5. Gracing the centre table was a Bible and a yellow plush album, in which was not a single picture... It must have been the yellow plush that had fascinated them. (Dreiser)6. "Something must have happened. He behaves quite differently to me, he's cold and he looks at me in such a terrifying way as if he were thinking about killing me... And honestly Martin, I'm frightened." "...Pull yourself together," I said. "You must be imagining all this." 7. Sir Robert: Gertrude, what you tell me may betrue, but it happened many years ago. It is best forgotten! Mrs. Cheveley may have changed since then. (Wilde) 8. She passed the girls' room, noticed that they were quiet and therefore must be doing as they had been told, and went on to the children's room. (Benson)9. "May not the editor have been right in his revision of your Sea Lyrics...?" she questioned. "Remember, an editor must havej)roved qualifications or else he would not be an editor." (London) 10, Stanley: That must have been a pretty long time ago. (Tennessee Williams)11. Both of you behaved very badly. You might have given me a little encouragement. (Maugham)

Exercise 5. Insert may (might) or must. Translate into Russian.

I. She said: "Please, please make no sign. That man at the door is mad. Do something. He __ kill me!" (Dreiser) 2. He was the father of three sons and two daughters, so I was told, all of whom __ have hated him; those I knew did anyhow. (Dreiser) 3. You __ be exhausted after all the tennis you played this afternoon, Minnie. (Maugham)4. You __ be getting better, since you can leave your bed? (Ch. Bronte)5. "I can't stay," Stephanie said. 79 As she walked down the corridor, she heard Marguerite calling after him. "You __ have told me before I started tea." (Saxton) 6. I said, "What time is it, Antonia?" "Ten o'clock"... "I —have slept for twelve hours." (Murdoch)7. She __ have recognized his voice, for the light disappeared from the apartment, and in a second or two the door was unlocked and opened... (Hardy)8. Late 299 stood, smiling, in front of the door. "Well, Bertha?" he said. "Ah, Beryl! Well, Jack!" His daughter alone replied. "Well, Father, you __ have let us know beforehand!" (Galsworthy)9. "How did it happen?" "It was the streetcar," Esther said. "It hit her. It — have tossed her right onto the cinders at the side of the track." (Benson)10. It occurred to him that perhaps his hostess __ be in, her boudoir. It was a possibility; he would go and see. (Huxley) 11. The doorway was all dark. The lights in the house __ have gone out. (Priestley) 12. I __ do-these things sometimes in absence of mind; but surely I don't do them habitually. (Shaw)

Exercise 6. Translate into English using the verbs can, may, must.

1. Уже пять часов. Собрание могло уже кончиться; подождем немножко, он может скоро прийти. 2. Петя, должно быть, заболел, иначе он был бы уже в театре, он никогда не приходит в последний момент. 3. Не может быть, чтобы она забыла о концерте, это совсем на нее не похоже. 4. Я его сегодня не жду; но, кто знает, может быть, он и придет. 5. «Хотела бы я знать, где она достала „Три товарища" Ремарка?». — «Она могла взять ее в нашей библиотеке». — «Не может быть, чтобы она взяла ее в нашей библиотеке: Семенова вчера взяла последний экземпляр». — «Ну, должно быть, она взяла ее в другой библиотеке». 6. «Где Павел?» — «Не знаю, он, возможно, пошел в филармонию”. — «Ну, это не очень-то любезно с его стороны; он мог бы взять билет и для меня». — «Посмотрите-ка, на столе что-то лежит, он, должно быть, оставил вам билет и записку». 7. Не может быть, чтобы она здесь была вчера. Если бы она была здесь, она оставила бы мне записку. 8. Не возвращайте пока книгу в библиотеку; она может вам понадобиться для доклада. 9. Может мне взять вашу книгу? 10. Можно употребить здесь настоящее продолженное время? 11. Он сказал, что доклад у него уже готот и он может прочесть его завтра на собрании. 12. «Он, должно быть, уже ушел». — «Не может быть, чтобы он ушел, не повидав меня». 13. «Где Мария?» — «Она, должно быть, еще спит». 14. Вы, должно быть, ошибаетесь, на двадцать пятой странице нет таких слов

Exercise 7. Translate into English using the verbs can, may, mast. (Based on an episode from To Let by J. Galsworthy.)

Сомс остановился перед картиной одного из начинающих xyдожников, с интересом ее рассматривая. «Что бы это могло изображать?» — думал он. «Они могли бы, по крайней мере, сделать надпись. Ах вот, судя по каталогу, это, наверное (должно быть), и есть картина, изображающая „Город будущего". А что значат эти вертикальные черные полосы? Может быть, это самолеты? Джун опять устраивает выставки произведений молодых художников. Она, должно быть, все еще полна иллюзий и думает, что со временем они могут стать знаменитостями. Но где же Флер? Что могло ее задержать? Не могла же она забыть о своем обещании? Да нет, она, наверное, опять пошла к Имоджин Кардиган. Эти женщины! На них никогда нельзя положиться!» Вдруг он заметил даму и юношу. Что-то в ней показалось ему знакомым. Неужели Ирэн? После стольких лет! И она его увидела. В глазах его, должно быть, отразилась саркастическая улыбка Джорджа Форсайта, так как лицо ее приняло жесткое выражение, и она прошла мимо.

Exercise 8. Comment and translate into Russian (to be + infinitive).

1. The typewriter people were again clamoring for money, insistently pointing out that according to the agreement rent was to be paid strictly in advance. (London)2. By that time of evening only a few persons were to be seen on the wet streets and most of the shops and stores were dark and closed for the night. (Caldwell)3. "You're to go now, Blick!" said Hunter, getting up. (Murdoch)4. I distinctly told you to stay with her every minute I was away. You are not to be trusted. (Fischer) 5. It was after breakfast, and we had been summoned in from the playground, when Mr. Sharp entered and said: "David Copperfield is to go into the parlour." (Dickens)6. Demetrius was nowhere to be found. (Douglas)7. When my wife and I settle down at Willowmere it's possible that we shall all come together. But if this isn't to be, for Heaven's sake, let us recognise that it is simply because it can't be, and not wear hypocritical faces and suffer and be wretched. (Pinero)8. The snow which had lain so thick and beautiful when I left the country was scarcely to be seen in the city... (Murdoch)9. Your mother arranged that she was to come down from London and that I was to come over from Dover to be introduced to you. (Shaw)10. Mrs. Moore, your delightful doctor has decided on a picnic, instead of a party in his house; we are to meet him out there... (Forster)11. For June this evening, that was to have been "her treat", was the most miserable she had ever spent. (Galsworthy)12. Eliza, you are to live here for the next six months, learning, how to speak beautifully, like a lady in a florist's shop. (Shaw)

Exercise 9. Comment and translate into Russian (to have+ infinitive, to be+ infinitive).

1. Blanche: I didn't save a penny last year and so I had to come here for the summer. That's why I have to put up with my sister's husband. And he has to put up with me, apparently so much against his wishes. Surely he must have told you how much he hates me. (Tennessee Williams)2. "His mother, my dear," said Miss Tox, "whose acquaintance I was to have made through you, does not at all resemble her." (Dickens)3. I had made arrangements so as not to have to come to the office again for a little while. (Murdoch)4....I could scarcely repress my curiosity as to the nature of this composition which was to be published, at his request, presumably, by The Banner. (Dreiser)5. There are some things that have to be said sooner or later, and I'd rather hear them from you than from anybody else. (Caldwell)6. She [Ellie] begins stroking Mangan's head, reversing the movement with which she put him to sleep. "Wake up, do you hear! You are to wake up at once. Wake up..." (Shaw)7. "I can't stay in this place any longer!" she cried in utter desperation. We've got to move out of this apartment. (Caldwell)8. He had been indeed with that luckless expedition of the Chevalier de St. George, who was sent by the French King with ships and an army from Dunkirk, and was to have invaded and conquered Scotland... (Thackeray)

Exercise 10. Insert to have (to have got) or to be in the appropriate form. Translate into Russian.

1. He toiled on all day, recollecting, at the last moment, that he __ to have dinner at the Morses'. (London)2. He shook his head again, when Gertrude offered him money, though he knew that within the day he __ to make a trip, to the pawnbroker. (London)3. There were thirty poems in the collection and he __ to receive a dollar apiece for them. (London)4. But just then we hit a stretch of unpaved road where the mud was thick and the ruts were hard to follow. I __ to stop talking and watch what I was doing. (Maltz)5. During their absence, Mahmoud Ali had gone off in his carriage leaving a message that he should be back in five minutes, but they __ on no account to wait. (Forster) 6. At this meal they arranged their daily habits. The major __ to take the responsibility of ordering everything to eat and drink; and they __ to have a late breakfast together every morning, and a late dinner together every day. (Dickens)7. Stella: People — to tolerate each other's habits, I guess. (Tennessee Williams)8. He told me to say you __ not to worry about him and that he'll recover in time. (Murdoch)9. She trembled that day as she prepared to go down to the wedding. She __ to be a bridesmaid. (Lawrence)10. The time was fixed for his sailing. It __ to take place almost immediately: yet much remained to be done; many domestic preparations __ to be made. (Gaskelt) 11. "You see practically the minute he left town, Lon spent his whole ailowance. All of it." "But he's only been there a week and that money — to last him through October," Mrs. Smith said. (Benson)

Exercise 11. Translate into English using the verbs can, may, must and the expressions to be + infinitive and to have + infinitive.

1. Теперь всему миру придется поверить, что человечеству суждено заселить если не все, то многие планеты солнечной системы. 2. Если бы кто-нибудь сказал это лет пятьдесят тому назад, ему ответили бы, что об этом и думать нельзя. 3. Скептикам, которые говорили, что этого не может быть, приходится признать, что нам суждено стать свидетелями межпланетных полетов. 4. Для того чтобы осуществить запуск космической ракеты в межпланетное пространство, ученым пришлось сделать точные вычисления, чтобы знать, куда направить ракету. Они решили, что она должна пройти в непосредственной близости от Луны. 5. Полагают, что Луна, может быть, будет служить базой для межпланетных полетов. 6. Ученые думают, что на Луне, должно быть, нет атмосферы. 7. Трудности, которые нам придется преодолеть для того, чтобы создать пассажирские межпланетные ракеты, очень велики. Но мы, несомненно, преодолеем их.

Exercise 12. Translate into English using modal verbs and expressions (should, ought, to have to, to be to).

1. Вы должны были давно прочесть «Дни и ночи» Симонова. Ведь книга издана в 1948 году. 2. Как это вы умудрились потерять книгу? Вы должны были положить ее в портфель, тогда вы бы ее не потеряли. Теперь вам придется расстаться с какой-нибудь из своих книг. 3. Собрание должно было состояться вчера, но не состоялось. 4. Мне придется пойти к ней, у нее испорчен телефон. 5. Вам бы следовало сделать то, что я вам говорила, тогда вы не оказались бы в таком глупом положении теперь. 6. Как мы условились, я должна была зайти к ней и привести ее сюда. 7. Вы должны были мне сказать, что вы были больны. 8..Это случилось как раз в то время, когда она должна была, уехать на юг. 9. Я должен был прийти к ней в два часа, но я оставил дома ее адрес, и мне пришлось вернуться; поэтому я опоздал. 10. Вам следует помочь ей, она ведь очень устала.

Exercise 13. Comment on the meaning of modal verbs. Translate into Russian (shall, will).

1. "Don't want it, thanks. Finish it yourself." "Shall I? or shall I keep it for an emergency?" (Priestley) 2. No, Hubert; no chivalry and that sort of nonsense. You shan't have all this beastliness alone. I'm going to share it. (Galsworthy)3. I ask your advice; and I am waiting for it. I will not have all the responsibility thrown on my shoulders. (Shaw)4. El lean: I will offer to go down to the village with Paula this morning — shall I? Aubrey (touching her hand gently): Thank you — do. (Pinero)5....I am yours for ever and ever. Nothing can or shall divide me from you, unless you stop loving. (Galsworthy)6. Soames lifted his eyes: "I won't have anything said against her," he sa!d unexpectedly. (Galsworthy) 7. Let snobbish people say what they please: Barbara shall marry not the man they like, but the man I like. (Shaw)8. Sir George: The fact is, Mrs. Tanqueray, I am not easy in my mind about the way I am treating my poor old mother. Lady Orreyed (to Paula): Do you hear that? That's his mother, but my mother he won't so much as look at. (Pinero)9. And now, Dr. Trench, since you have acted handsomely, you shall have no cause to complain of me. There shall be no difficulty about money; you shall entertain as much as you please: I will guarantee all that. (Shaw)10. "If I could have a picture of you, I should treasure it." "Of course you shall!" (Galsworthy)11. I've told you over and over again that I will not be inter-; fered with when I'm playing patience. (Maugham)12. Will you have rum in your tea? (Galsworthy)13. I've proved to you that I love you more than anybody else loves you and still you won't leave that Glenn Kenworthy and go with me. (Caldwell)14. Barbara. I will not have Charles called Cholly: the vulgarity of it positively makes me iil. (Shaw)15. Only don't talk to me about divorce, for I simply won't hear of itl (Murdoch)! 16. Princess. You must come and see me and you shall tell me! all the news of home. (Maugham)17....he won't see a doctor,] or take any advice. He won't see anyone. (Galsworthy) IS, The! editors, subeditors, associate editors, most of them... are men wha| wanted to write and who have failed. And yet they, of all crea-1 tures under the sun the most unfit, are the very creatures whoi decide what shall and what shall not find its way into print..  (London)

Exercise 14. Insert shall, will or the contracted forms oi shall not, wlla not (shan't, won't). Translate into Russian.

1. Ellie: You __ not run away before you answer. I have found out that trick of yours. (Shaw)2. " __ you come in a moment?" "Thank you kindly, young man." (contracted) (Cronin)3. Napoleon (beside himself):...Once more, and only once, will you give me those papers or __ I tear them from you by force! (Shaw)4, You must be tired, dear; __ you go to bed? (contracted) __ I bring you something up? (Galsworthy)5. Soames is very fond of you, he __ have anything said against you; why don't you show him more affection? (contracted) (Galsworthy)6. Aubrey: Have you seen EHean this morning? Paula (coldly): Your last observation but one was about Ellean. Aubrey: Dearest, what __ I talk about? (Pinero)7. __ you please leave my room? (Galsworthy)8. Then he __ be here in a few minutes! What __ I do? (Shaw) 9. " __ I speak to Diana, then, about what we've been saying?" "If you __, Dinny." (Galsworthy)10. Mohammed Latif _ be severely punished for inventing this. (Forsier) 11. Jack: Gwendolen, __ you marry me? (Goes on his knees.) Gwendolen: Of course I __, darling. (Wilde)12. I give and bequeath a hundred pounds to my younger son Christopher Dudgeon, fifty pounds to be paid to him on the day of his marriage to Sarah Wilkins, if she __ have him. (Shaw)13. "Martin darling, you're drunk," said Antonia. " __ I order you a taxi to go home in?" (Murdoch)14. Mrs. Cortelyon: You know we are neighbours, Mrs. Tanqueray. Paula: Neighbours? Are we really? __ you sit down? (contracted) (Pinero)15. A man who __ work is no good, take that from me. (contracted) (London)16. I'll go, Dinny, if Hallorsen __ take me. (Galsworthy)17. Since you have taken the minister's place, Richard Dtfdgeon, you __ go through with it. The execution will take place at 12 o'clock as arranged; and unless Anderson surrenders before then, you __ take his place on the gallows. (Shaw)18. "I'm not lying," I said. "If you __ believe what I say why do you keep asking me?" (contracted) (Murdoch)19. Lady: I cannot permit you, General, to enter my chamber. Napoleon: Then you __ stay here, madam, whilst I have your chamber searched for my papers. (Shaw)20....you stood by my father, and by G — I I'll stand by you. You __ never want a friend, Harry, while Francis James Viscount Castlewood has a shilling. (Thackeray)21. "Your master is a true scoundrell" I replied. "But he _ answer for it." (E. Bronte) 22. __ we go, Blanche? (Tennessee Williams)23. You may come, if you __ (E. Bronte) 24. Aubrey: __ I burn this, dear? (Referring to ihe letter he holds in his hand.) Let me, let me! (Pinero)25. Paula: Why are you here? Why aren't you with your friend? El lean: I've come home — if you __ have me. (Pinero)

Exercise 15. Comment on the meaning of modal verbs. Translate into Russian (should or ought, would).

1. If I do lose my temper, 'tis not with ye, or Cornelia either, but with him that should be helping me and never does. (Dreiser) 2. Dad's away at some parsonical conference. I wanted him to take me, but he wouldn't. (Galsworthy)3. The courage of a Military Tribune should not be squandered in banquet-halls. (Douglas)4. "I was for letting you sleep on," she said, "but they would go up and wake you. I said you didn't really want to come," (Maugham)5. He ought to have phoned Simkin earlier, knowing his habits, (Bellow)6. After a hasty breakfast they consulted. To whom should they go? "Not to the police," said Dinny. "No, indeed." "I think we should go to Uncle Adrian first." (Galsworthy)7. The lady I liked wouldn't marry me — that is the main point, but that's fifteen years ago and now means nothing. (Forster)8. If only one editor, he sometimes thought, would descend from his high seat of pride to write me one cheering linei (London)9....I did something — a certain thing — something I shouldn't have done— but couldn't help itl (Catdwelt) 10. And now you feed me, when then you let me starve, forbade me your house, and damned me because I wouldn't get a job. (London)11. It isn't the sort of thing one should talk of in private. (Wilde)12. He seemed to me quite normal, except that he would not go out or see anybody. (Galsworthy)13. "If Clare's to see Kit and Kat before we start," said Dinny, "we ought to go up, Fleur." (Galsworthy)

Exercise 16. Insert should or would. Translate into Russian.

1. Never forget that we __ always think of others and work for others. (Shaw)2. Anna began to feel a little uncomfortable, but she __ not admit it. (Fischer) 3. I had that door painted only.last week,...you __ be more careful. (London)4. You, Patty and Priscilla, are going to college, and __ realize the necessity of being prepared. (Webster) 5. "Then Agnes came by with Bunchie's sister," Tootie went on. "They were going to ride on the bridge, and we wanted to go... But she and Bunchie __ n't take us." (Benson)6. I tried often to get him to talk. It was not that "he __ n't talk, it was rather that he didn't seem to hear me.. (Maltz)7. A man __ always have an occupation of some kind. (Wilde)8. Every one, except Mrs. Reffold, seemed to recognize that Mr. Reffold's days were numbered. Either she did not or __ not understand. (Harraden) 9. Algernon: Oh! it is absurd to have a hard and fast rule about what one __ read and what one, __ n't. (Wilde)10. All of her other former belongings... had either been sold or lost for non-payment of dues. Just the same, she either could not or __ not work. (Dreiser)11. Eunice: How is she? Stella: She __ eat anything but asked for a drink. (contracted) (Tennessee Williams)12. "Why didn't you come before?" he said. "You __ have come, instead of writing." (E. Bronte)

Exercise 17. Comment on the meaning of modal verbs. Translate into Russian.

1. On the fourth day, feeling that she could bean the suspense no longer, she telephoned to Fleur and asked if she might come up to them. (Galsworthy)2. I should be grateful if you would keep your hands off my business in future. (Murdoch)3, You know you didn't dare give the order to charge the bridge until you saw us on the other side. (Shaw)4. Mitch Poker shouldn't be played in a house with women. (Tennessee Williams) 5. They didn't have to worry about money. (Mansfield)6. Although his residence and his family were in the country... he was frequently to be found about the restaurants and resorts of the radical section of the city. (Dreiser)7. She would not answer me, of course, but went on cording the crate... And when I thought it was done with, she found a volume slipped under a chair... and she would open up the crate and put it in. (Morgan) 8. "I suppose you know what I've been through since that bag came this morning," said mother. "You might have had some consideration for me. There is simply no excuse for all this..." (Fischer) 9. You need not meet him unless you like. (Shaw)10. He's... let me see... He can't be more than thirty, dear. (Swinnerton) 11. Mischa followed her, and they were to be seen a moment later in conversation. (Murdoch)12. Meanwhile, Margaret seemed to hear a Taint knocking, but as no one appeared to hear it, she thought she must be mistaken. (Priestley) 13. And of course you should have introduced us long ago. (Murdoch)14. I could not, and would not, believe that she was becoming interested in me. That could not be. (Dreiser)15. Anyhow, Callendar won't hear of you seeing her. (Forster)16. And here now was this young and promising doctor, who could, if he would, keep her supplied with work, and might even eventually marry her. (Dreiser)17. Aubrey: What is to be her future? It is in my hands; what am I to do? (Pinero)18. Your family may object to me; and then it will be all over between us. (Shaw)19. Rosa reflected, as the train was leaving Naples, that perhaps she ought not to have left Hunter alone. (Murdoch)20. How dare he speak so to me? (E. Bronte) 21. I need hardly say I would do anything in the world to ensure Gwendolen's happiness. (Wilde)22. How dare you address me as dear Sir, Sir? How dare you look me in the face and do it, Sir? (Dickens)23....Mama came down, and in a voice which was both astonished and distraught, exclaimed: "Grandpa is not upstairs. Where can he have gone?" (Cronin)24. But you might have been firing away at the Australians still if we cavalry fellows hadn't found the ford and got across... (Shaw)25. You must be dying with curiosity. Take a peep. (Shaw)26. Madam, may I speak to you a moment? (Mansfield)27. She gazed at me severely. "You ought to be in at your essay." (Cronin)28. Christy (interrupting her with an apprehensive glance at the door by which Essie went out): Shi She may hear you. (Shaw)29. The substance of her observations, along with those of others, is to be found in a series of articles published in a series of screen publications of the time. (Dreiser)30. But you've got to finish college. We can't get married for a long time. (Carter)31. Cain said: "I don't have to pay to find that out.. I could have asked anybody at the meeting, and found out." (Carter)32. Soames would often come down to watch with secret pride the building of the house which was to have been his home. (Galsworthy) 33. Miss Femm opened the door. "I've none of this electric light. I won't have it. You'll have to wait till I've lit the candles." (Priestley) 34. "Well," he [James] said, with a perplexed, nervous emphasis, "I don't see what you want with a tree." "It shall come down to-morrow," said Bosinney. (Galsworthy) 35. "What are we to do?" she gasped. "Can't we stay here? Lock the door?" (Priestley) 36. I felt suddenly dizzy with pain and unable to face whatever scene was to follow. (Murdoch)37. But Sally, with a towel round her, went down to the water's edge. "You're to come out this minute, Philip," she called, as though he were a small boy under her charge. (Maugham) 38. It seemed like an age, but I suppose the whole thing can't have lasted thirty seconds really. (Forster)39. "Land ought to be very dear about there," he said. (Galsworthy)

Exercise 18. Insert modal verbs and explain their use (use the contracted forms shan't, won't, shouldn't, wouldn't if necessary). Translate into Russian.

1. You __ have looked lovely in a veil, Aunt Em. Didn't she, Uncle? (Galsworthy)2. Won't you sit down, Mr. Anderson? I __ have asked you before; but I'm so troubled. (Shaw)3. I went over to the window....The pavements were damp and reflected the yellow light. It __ have rained to-day. (Murdoch)4. "Now please tell me how you are going to celebrate the great event of my having won a scholarship. __ we have a grand sort of schoolroom treat?"... "We certainly will," replied the mother. "You have worked hard and __ have your reward." (contracted) (Meade)5. "I mean they're sending me to New York for good. To be the head of the New York office." "I don't believe it," Mrs. Smith said... "I simply don't believe it. I think you __ have lost your mind." "It's true," he said,..."I __ to start a week from Saturday." (Benson)6. There were two letters for him. One from his guardian..., the other irom his sister. The man she was engaged to... was afraid that his leave was going to be curtailed. They would __ to be married at once. They might even __ to get a special licence. (Galsworthy) 7. Pearl: I sent out to the garage and gave instructions that the old Rolls-Royce __ to be taken down at once and the other __ to go to London. (Maugham)8. "Tootie __ have been in school this year," Mr. Smith said defiantly. "And would have been too, if you hadn't carried on so about her being the baby. She'll __ to start school sometime, you know." (Benson)9. Hsshl He's still asleep. What __ we to do when he wakes? __ we go up to him and wait for it? (Galsworthy)10. Let's go over and see old Shropshire. He __ have known your father well, Con. (Galsworthy)11. "Did you __ to take a cab?" "No... there was nothing much to bring." (Cronin)12. Mrs. Ferse asked him if he had had dinner, and if he would like to go to bed; and if he would see a doctor; but he __ speak, he sat with his eyes closed. (contracted) (Galsworthy)13....from time to time he and Esther Norn __ to be seen together. (Dreiser)14. Paula: Ahl (She sits at the piano and touches the keys.) Lady Orreyed: Oh, yes, do play! That's the only thing I envy you for. Paula: What __ I play? (Pinero)15. A doctor called in at this late hour...He suggested a nurse, but this Mrs. Widdle, ill as she was, __ not hear of. It would cost so much. (Dreiser)16. You __ not be so careless with your things. (Gow and D’Usseau)17. You __ not to tell Dad what I told you, Mother. (Galsworthy)18....indignation against Martin ran high. No one __ have anything to do with a Socialist traitor. (London)19. It's all over the town, and __ injure your reputation. (Forster)20. We __ have children, Gretta — a lot of children. There would be no time to worry about ourselves then. (Caldwell)21. "O Sue!" he cried, sitting down beside her and taking her hand. "How is this! You couldn't write?" "No, it wasn't thatl" she answered. "I did catch a bad cold — but I could have written. Only I __ I" (contracted) (Hardy)22. She was always well-dressed and carried herself with an inimitable air that __ have been bora in her. It __ never have been acquired. (Dreiser)23. To Zedelbush Wolff said, "Go and order your men to drop their arms. They __ to leave the hotel singly and with upraised hands." (Heym)24. There are some houses there somewhere. We'll ask, they __ have seen him. (Galsworthy)25. "Well, Annie," he said. "I gave Trask a dollar for his trouble." "You __ not have done that, Father/' Mrs. Smith said. "After all, we do pay him to watch the house." (Benson)26. On the inland side hills __ to be seen, spotted with olive trees... (Murdoch)27. " __ I ask," he said..., "what it is that is bothering you, my dear?"(Carter)28. "I __ be out again directly," he said to the driver, or I __ be kept some time." (Galsworthy)29. You __ to stay out so late: it makes you fit for nothing, (contracted) (Galsworthy)

Exercise 19. Translate into English, using modal verbs.

1. «Помочь вам?» — «Нет, спасибо, я сделаю все сама». 2. «Не знаю, справлюсь ли я с этой работой в такой короткий срок». — «Вы должны были подумать об этом раньше». 3. Не может быть, чтобы он уже вернулся, ведь он вчера только уехал в Москву. Вы, должно быть, ошиблись. 4. Вы не должны позволять ей читать в сумерки, она может испортить глаза. 5. Вы не должны' были оставлять гореть газ, такими вещами нельзя шутить, ведь мог произойти пожар! 6. Он должен был поехать в Москву на прошлой неделе, но конференция задержала его на несколько дней. 7. Тысячу раз я просила ее не хлопать дверью, когда я занимаюсь, но она все равно хлопает. 8. Я вас, должно быть, неправильно понял и поэтому пришел так рано. 9. Вам не к чему брать зонтик, на небе нет ни облачка. 10. Мне придется оставить ей записку, я ее, наверно, не увижу. 11. «Почему они ее тогда не видели?» — «Она могла уйти до их прихода». 12. Вам незачем идти на почту, я отправлю ваше письмо. 13. Джордж должен был вчера у нас обедать, но ои не пришел. 14. Погода была прекрасная; мы пошли в сад, всюду можно было видеть счастливые лица детей. 15. «Купить вам „Сдается в наем" Голсуорси?» — «Нет, не надо; моя сестра была вчера в книжном магазине, она, возможно, купила эту книгу». 16. Доктор велел ей лежать в постели, но она и слышать об этом не хотела. 17. Обычно я хожу в филармонию пешком, но вчера я вышел поздно, и мне пришлось сесть в автобус.

Exercise 20. Translate into English, using modal verbs whenever possible. (Based on an episode irom David Copperfield by Ch. Dickens).

1. Давид считал, что Дора должна заниматься хозяйством и вести счет расходам. 2. Он купил ей поваренную книгу, надеясь, что это может послужить хорошим началом, но Дора не хотела даже заглянуть в нее. 3. Она нашла для нее другое применение: на ней должна была стоять и проделывать свои трюки ее собачка Джип. 4. Что касается подсчета расходов, она попыталась считать, но вскоре сказала, что цифры ни за что не хотят складываться, и бросила. 5. Давид долгое время досадовал на Дору и думал, что она могла бы проявлять некоторый интерес к хозяйству, но потом понял, что он не должен требовать от 'нее того, чего она не может делать.

Exercise 21. Translate into English, using modal verbs.

1. Концерт должен был быть пятого февраля, но был отложен из-за болезни дирижера. 2. Петя узнал об этом до дня концерта, но не сообщил своему приятелю Коле, так как у него был испорчен телефон. 3. Коля очень рассердился на него. «Ты должен был сказать мне, не мог же ты быть так занят, чтобы не зайти на почту или позвонить», — сказал он, когда они увиделись. 4. Петя объяснил, что как раз в тот день заболела его сестра и он должен был за ней ухаживать. 5. Но его приятель и слушать не хотел его объяснений. 6. «Ты мог бы найти способ дать мне знать», — упрямо повторял он, хотя Петя продолжал оправдываться, говоря, что никого не было дома и он боялся, что сестре может что-нибудь понадобиться во время его отсутствия.

Exercise 22. Translate into English, using modal verbs. (Based on an episode irom The Citadel by A. Cronin.)

1. Кристин поражалась перемене, происшедшей в Эндрью. 2. «Не может быть, чтобы он потерял интерес к работе, не может быть, чтобы он думал только о деньгах», — думала она. 3. Эндрью в свою очередь не понимал, почему Кристин стала такой нервной и почему она ни за что не хочет сказать, что с ней такое. 4. Он думал, что вместо того, чтобы сердиться на него, ей следовало бы радоваться его успеху. 5. «Она могла бы подумать о том, как получше обставить нашу квартиру теперь, когда мы можем позволить себе это», — думал он. 6. Но он не мог долго думать об этом, та» как был очень занят: ему надо было обслужить всех своих пациентов, поэтому он решил, что ее странное поведение — просто каприз, на который он не должен обращать внимания. 7. Однажды миссис Лоренс позвонила ему и, сказав, что супруг ее уехал на рыбную лрвлю в Ирландию и она, быть может, через несколько дней поедет к нему, позвала его к завтраку. 8. Он принял ее приглашение, хотя и подумал, что она могла бы пригласить и Кристин. 9. Потом он пришел к заключению, что это визит скорее деловой, а не светский и что он должен бывать в обществе и заводить знакомства, которые могут быть полезны для его карьеры, и что ему не к чему говорить об этом Кристин.

Exercise 23. Translate into English, using modal verbs whenever possible. (Based on an episode from David Copperfield by Ch. Dickens).

I. Мистер Копперфильд часто думал, что его тетушка могла бы приехать познакомиться с его женой. 2. Неужели она забыла, как она любила меня? 3. Не может быть, чтобы она меня забыла. 4. «Это, должно быть, мисс Бетси», — подумала миссис Копперфильд, увидев незнакомую даму, которая шла по саду. 5. «Она не должна была так пугать вас»,—сказала Пеготти, отводя свою госпожу наверх. 6. Она могла бы проявить больше чуткости. 7. «Кто это может быть?» — подумал мистер Чиллип, увидев мисс Бетси. 8. Может быть, это какая-нибудь родственница миссис Копперфильд. 9. Но он сейчас же прогнал эту мысль. «Не может быть, чтобы эта дама была родственницей, у нее такой странный вид». 10. Неужели она уехала, не увидев ребенка? 11. «Она не могла так поступить, какая бы странная она ни была», — сказала миссис Копперфильд. 12. Пеготти ответила, что мисс Бетси, должно быть, очень рассердилась на миссис Копперфильд за то, что у нее родился сын. 13. «Но, может быть, она не уехала, может быть, она пошла погулять и скоро вернется»,—ответила миссис Копперфильд. 14. Пеготти, однако, сказала решительно, что она, должно быть, уехала, и уехала навсегда. 15. «Она могла бы попрощаться со мной и взглянуть на моего малютку», — заметила миссис Копперфильд.

Exercise 24. Translate into English, using modal verbs whenever possible. (Based on an episode from David Copperfield by Ch. Dickens).

1. «Где же может быть миссис Копперфильд?» — думала Пеготти, которая не ложилась спать, ожидая свою хозяйку. 2. Она, должно быть, опять ушла к тем соседям, где она всегда встречает этого господина со зловещими черными глазами. 3. Затем она подумала, что, может быть, миссис Копперфильд дома, что она, может быть, не видела, как та пришла. 4. «Неужели она влюблена в этого господина, неужели она забыла своего мужа?» — думала она. 5. Она не могла понять, как ее госпожа может допустить, чтобы этот джентльмен с черными бакенбардами ухаживал за ней. 6. Когда миссис Копперфильд пришла, Пеготти сказала ей, что ей не следовало так надолго оставлять ребенка, что она должна была вернуться раньше. 7. «Вы могли бы вернуться раньше и провести вечер с ребенком», — сказала она. 8. Но миссис Копперфильд не слышала, что говорит Пеготти, она сидела, погруженная в мысли. 9. Она думала о мистере Мердстоне. «Он, наверное, полюбит Давида, он, кажется, очень добрый человек, не может быть, чтобы он меня обманывал».


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