Exercise 1. State the morphological composition of the following nouns.
Snow, sandstone, impossibility, widower, opinion, exclamation, passer-by, misunderstanding, inactivity, snowball, kingdom, anticyclone, mother-of-pearl, immobility, might, warmth, succession, ex-president, nurse, misdeed, wisdom, blackbird, attention, policeman, merry-go-round, girlhood, usefulness, fortune, friendship, statesman, brother-in-law, population, fellow-boarder, smelling-salt.
Exercise 1. Change the nouns into the plural. Use some (any) where necessary and make the other necessary changes.
1. A kitten likes to play. 2. A violet does not smell so sweet as a lily of the valley. 3. Have you bought an apple for your child? 4. Here is a letter to be posted. 5. He ate a spoonful of broth and a sandwich. 6. I must buy a postcard. 7. She did not bring me a magazine, she brought me a newspaper. 8. She made a step towards him. 9. In the bedroom a candle was burning. 10. Did she ever lend you a book?
Exercise 1. State the morphological composition of the following adjectives.
Pretty, bushy, weather-stained, thoughtful, hard-hearted, illegitimate, sober, non-party, low-bred, improbable, sceptical, counter-revolutionary, careworn, beloved, wicked, disobedient, long-legged, regular, water-proof, large, well-timed, homeless, shaky, courageous, panic-stricken, blindfold, Portuguese, newly-baked, antique, peace-making, forlorn, illegible, abundant, red-haired, small, deep-blue, bookish, snow-white, respectable-looking.
Exercise 1. Point out the pronouns in the following sentences and define the class each belongs to.
1. There's nothing for any of us to do. (Snow)2. Both these people were resolved to treat Mr. Polly very well, and to help his exceptional incompetence in every possible way. (Wells)3. Tom presented himself before Aunt Polly, who was sitting by an open window in a pleasant rearward apartment, which was bed-room, break fast-room, dining-room, and library combined. (Twain)4. Such were the reflections of Felix before the brass tablet. (Galsworthy)5. It was the sort of solemn warning that a sanguine man gives to others, because he ought to give it to himself. (Snow)6. Elizabeth and George talked and found each other delightful. (Aldington)7. What we need is a higher and purer political morality. (Dreiser)
Exercise 1. Point out the words denoting state. Translate into Russian.
1. The afternoon was full of transfiguring sunshine, some Judas trees were abloom in the villa gardens... (Wells) 2. I did not mind for myself. I should not have cared if had been alone. (Du Maurier)3....his soul was all ablaze with bliss... (Twain)4. We are not afraid of the truth. (Gow and D’Usseau)5. The rest of his costurne... were the things he had worn at the funeral of his father. So nearly akin are human joy and sorrow. (Wells)6. The lieutenant... Jay asleep on the other bed. (Hemingway)7. He lit a pool of paraffin on the scullery floor and instantly a nest of wavering blue flame became agog for prey. (Wells)8, He [Mr. Polly] rattled and stormed and felt the parlour already ablaze behind him. (Wells)9. But Mr. Polly's establishment looked more like a house afire than most houses on fire contrive to look from start to finish. (Wells)10. You know- everything there is to know about me. There's not much, because I have not been alive for wery long. (Du Maurier)П. He did not answer. I was aware again of that feeling of discomfort. (Du Maurier)
Exercise 1. State the morphological composition of the verbs.
To worry, to precipitate, to forbid, to retire, to retell, to do away, to whitewash, to whiten, to ascend, to apologize, to engage, to enfold, to give in, to decompose, to translate, to transport, to browbeat, to subscribe, to subordinate, to run away, to underestimate, to backbite, to mislead, to forget, to succeed, to disobey, to take off, to overrun, to satisfy, to recede, to come in, to resign, to superintend, I to descend, to blackmail, to put up, to unbind, to win, to counteract, to go on, to forecast, to befriend, to go away, to lie, to predispose.
Exercise 1. Insert the Present Indefinite or Future Indefinite.
1. When you __ to Martin, we shall often meet, (to be married) (Murdoch and Priestley) 2. Wait here, in case I __ you. (to want) (Collins)3. Where __ you __ "when the seminary __, Padre? (to go, to close) (Voynich)4. Give me the railway guide, and I'll tell you when he __ here to-morrow, (to be) (Collins)5. You __ here till it __ time to go to the barrier, (to stay, to be) (Voynich) 6. If you __ me who you are I __ the dog on you. (to tell — negative, to set) (Abrahams)-7. I'm going abroad next week. I don't know when I __ back, (to be) (Greene)8. My father-in-law is asleep... As soon as he __, he will, I know, want to see you. (to wake) (Christie) 9. I __ Blackstable till I __ your wife, (to leave — negative, to be) (Maugham)10. You must wait, my friend, before you __ an answer to that question, (to get) (Christie)
Exercise 1. Insert the required tense (Passive Voice).
1. "I don't want to hear another word. I __ never __ so __ in my whole life, (to insult) (I. Shaw)2. But what shall I do if you __ ? (to kill) (Shaw)3. Godfrey waited, before he spoke again, until the ale __ and the door __ (to bring, to close) (Eliot)4. In whatever spare time he could find, he read the current research journals, trying to understand the implications of the experiments which __ throughout the world, (to perform) (Wilson) 5. Merriman, order the dog-cart at once. Mr. Ernest __ suddenly to town, (to call back) (Wilde)6. Upon the Doctor and the widow the eyes of both Mr. Tuprnan and his companion __ for some time, when the stranger broke silence, (to fix) (Dickens)7. In 1834, the Houses of Parliament, with the exception of Westminster Hall __ by fire. They __ '. by Sir Charles Barry, (to destroy, to rebuild) 8. "I'm afraid that we're going to have to move," he said. "This lab won't be big enough for us after all. But there's a double room on the eleventh floor that __ " (to use — negative) (Wilson)
Exercise 1. Comment upon the meaning of modal verbs. Translate into Russian (can, may).
1. "Can't you sleep, Signor Tenente?" he asked. "No." "I can't sleep, either." (Hemingway)2. Alice: I'll come too if I may. (Gow and D’Usseau)3. I said, "I am Martin Lynchgibbon. We have met before, though you may have forgotten. Palmer asked me to meet you. May I carry something?" (Murdoch)4. "She cannot have heard of her father's death," said Braybrooke. "But she had! For I expressed my sympathy and she thanked me." (Hichens) 5. It was not many hours ere he, Esmond, was in London, of that you may be sure, and received with open arms by the old Dowager of Chesley... (Thackeray)6. Darling, I'm sorry I was so drunk yesterday... I may have seemed churlish, but don't think I'm not deeply grateful for your concern. I may yet need your help... (Murdoch)7. Julia: Why is she coming home? Maude: I don't know... I suppose she got fed up with Paris after five years. She couldn't have had much fun. (Taylor) 8. Howard: Lieutenant, may I ask a question? (Gow and D’Usseau)9. "Can I possibly have made a mistake?" she thought. (Forster)10. Oh, this house, this house! I come back to it after twenty-three years and it is just the same... really. Hesione might at least have been here: some preparation might have been made for me. (Shaw)11. "He may not even know I'm here." (Forster)12. They can't understand the English language, anyway. (Hemingway)
Exercise 1. Insert the appropriate form o! the Subjunctive Mood. Comment on the form and the use of the Subjunctive Mood. Translate into Russian (conditional sentences).
1. I honestly think it __ better if we __ each other for awhile. (to be, to see — negative) (Hansford Johnson)2. If you __ already married, Mr. Clay, I __ ior you. (to be — negative, to wait) (Stone) 3. Now if only Betty __ able to come this evening she __ it. But, of course, she had to choose this evening to go and see her mother, (to be, to do) (A. Wilson)4. If he __ ordinary, I __ him (to be, to love — negative) (Galsworthy)5. And if anything __ to him, there __ something in the Press, (to happen, to be) (Priestley) 6, I __ it a few months ago, Mr. Chapin. (to believe) (Dreiser) 7. If I __ you, I think I __ very much as you do. (to be, to feel) (Snow)8. You first brought your friend into my sister's company, and but for you we __ never __ him. (to see) (Dickens)9. I certainly won't leave you so long as you are in mourning. It __ most unfriendly. If I __ in mourning you __ with me, I suppose, (to be, to be, to stay) (Wilde)
Exercise 1. Insert the appropriate form oi Participle I.
1. Derek, who had slept the sleep of the dead, __ none for two nights, woke __ of Nedda. (to have, to think) (Galsworthy) 2. The street was full of people, t- and __ home, (to laugh, to go) (Greene)3. The gypsy smiled, __ his teeth, (to show) (Hemingway)4. While __ my directions, he glanced at me now and then, suspiciously, from under his frost-white eye-lashes, (to obey) (Ch. Bronte)5. __ them, he raised his coffee cup. (to watch) (Cronin)6. It (the letter] contained very little matter, __ in haste; but the meaning was bulky enough, (to write) (Hardy)7. He went upstairs again, __ past the door, and, __ his room, switched on the light, (to tiptoe, to enter) (Galsworthy)8. The missionary, __ daily opportunities of looking at this seascape for thirty years or so, pays no heed to it, __ in trimming a huge red geranium bush. (to have, to absorb) (Shaw)
Exercise 1. Insert lhc appropriate form of the gerund.
1. Stark sat down without __ (to speak) (Jones) 2. He did not go without __ by Amy. (to congratulate) (Dickens)3. After __ more closely than usual and __ his hair, he [Herzog] took the bus uptown, (to shave, to brush) (Bellow) 4. At South Square, on __ that Michael and Fleur were out, he -did not dress for dinner, but went to the nursery, (to discover) (Galsworthy) 5. I had to sound as if I didn't mind __, as though I had no temper of my own. (to insult) (Snow)6. She kept on __, her voice low and controlled, (to talk) (Braine) 7. In the morning light, she was, ashamed of herself for __ so __ the night before, (to elate) (Snow) 8. The house wanted __ (to do up) (Galsworthy)
Exercise 1. Insert the appropriate form of the infinitive.
1. But there was nothing now __ for. (to wait) (Wilson)2. She put on the cape, and turned round __ (to admire) (Cain) 3. He appeared __ (to listen) (Lessing)4. He appeared __ plenty of money, which was said __ in the Californian goldfields. (to have, to gain) (Conan Doyle)5. "When I seemed __ a long while, the Master of Salem House unscrewed his flute into the three pieces, put them up as before, and took me away, (to doze) (Dickens)6. Every feature seemed __ since he saw her last, (to sharpen) (Galsworthy) 7. This fellow seemed __ a famous explorer or something of that sort, (to be) (Priestley) 8. The house appeared __ recently... (to repair) (Hardy)9. Nobody seemed __ his entry, but there he certainly was. (to perceive) (Hardy)10. Paula would be the first concentration camp __ by American troops, (to liberate) (Heym) 11. Willoughby was not the man __ the lessons of his predecessor. (to overlook) (Heym)
Exercise 1. State the morphological composition of the following adverbs
Where, abroad, too, tenfold, nowadays, inside, quickly, underneath, once, homeward, seldom, nowhere, heartily, afoot, headlong, twice, beyond, then, eastward, otherwise, upstairs, rarely, late, outside, ahead, forever, so, beneath, forward, fast, scarcely, inquiringly, sometimes, good-naturedly.
Exercise I. Point out all the modal words and define their meaning.
1. Over the ridge she would find him. Surely she would find him. (Wells)2. He had stopped their mouths, maybe, but at what a cost. (Galsworthy)3. She s just engaged to him. Of course she is frightfully excited about it, and naturally he wants her to come away and marry. (Wells) 4. Winifred could barely get a word out of him, he ate nothing, but he certainly took his liquor and his face kept getting whiter. (Galsworthy)5. She was probably dissatisfied just as he was. (Dreiser)6. Knowledge of something kept from her made him, no doubt, unduly sensitive. (Galsworthy)7. The Buccaneer, watching him go so sadly, felt sorry perhaps for his behaviour to the old man. (Galsworthy)8. Thorp was actually too sick to see anybody. (Heym)9. "Allow me, Sir, the honour of grasping your hand — permit me, Sir, to shake it," said the grave man. "Certainly," said Mr. Pickwick. (Dickens)10. My dear Ma'am, you deserve a very excellent husband—you do indeed. (Dickens)11. Bertine and I are just on our way home, truly. (Dreiser)12. He saw Fleur, standing near the door, holding a handkerchief which the boy had evidently just handed to her.. (Galsworthy)
Exercise 1. Point out all the interjections and say whether they are emotional or imperative.
1. "The Boers are a hard nut to crack, uncle James." "H'm!" muttered James. "Where do you get your information? Nobody tells." (Galsworthy)2. "Oh! My eyel" he said looking very lowspirited, "I am sorry for that." (Galsworthy)3. "Good Lord!" said Fleur. "Am I only twenty-one? I feel forty-eight." (Galsworthy)4. "Good Heavensl" cried my mother, "you'll drive me mad!" (Dickens)5. Heavens! How dull you arel (Sheridan) 6. "Oh, Karen," he said, "it's good to have you around!" (Heym)7. Alas! The white house was empty and there was a bill in the window. (Dickens)8. A man jumped on top of the barricade and, waving exuberantly, shouted. "Americains! Hurrah." (Heym)9. Hallo, Michael! I'm rather late; been to the club and walked home. (Galsworthy)10. Ah! you are both of you good-natured. (Sheridan) 11. "Hark!" cried the Dodger at this moment, "I heard the tinkler," catching up the light, he crept softly upstairs. (Dickens)12. "Who is that?" she cried. "Hush, hush!" said one of the women, stooping over her... (Dickens)13. Well, I don't like those mysterious little pleasure trips that he is so fond of taking. (Voynich)14. Now, Maria, here is a character to your taste... (Sheridan) 15. Here! I've had enough of this. I'm going. (Shaw)
Exercise 1. Insert by or with.
1. The Germans, he had been assured __ everybody, were on the run, and it was unlikely that they would stop running so soon... (Heym)2. He was busy making entries __ a lead pencil in a book which lay open before him. (Dreiser)3. Both men were loaded down __ field equipment and the bottles contributed __ the grateful people of Paris. (Heym)4. They dined in the small restaurant, which had been "decorated" __ rather feeble pictures __ young artists. (Aldington)5. But the nearer he came to the center of the town, the more difficult it was to walk; the road was strewn __ stones and bricks and rubble. (Heym)6. I remember being met at the Zoo station __ one of their scholars. (Snow) 7. He sat down vigorously and lighted a cigarette __ trembling hands. (Murdoch)8. The streets, crowded __ people, still reminded Yates of the first days in Paris, the honeymoon of liberation. (Heym)9. She had been appointed __ one of Rainborough's predecessors. (Murdoch)10. The hills around Rollingen, usually illuminated __ the fires in the blast furnaces, were crowded __ the lightning of far-off guns. (Heym)
Exercise 1. State the morphological composition oi the following conjunctions.
For, as well as, unless, now that, and, neither... nor, while, although, not only... but also, provided, as though, supposing, no sooner... than, or, so that, if, both... and, as long as, so, either... or, as... as, when, until, before, after, as if, as soon as, lest, for fear that, notwithstanding, nor.
Exercise 1. Point out the particles and define the group each belongs to.
1. It is just because I want to save my soul that I am marrying for money. (Shaw) 2. Rosa feared this power, but she enjoyed it too. (Murdoch) 3. Oh, doctor, do you think there is any chance? Can she possibly survive this last terrible complication? (Shaw) 4. We merely want to see the girl and take her away. (Dreiser) 5. I shall also try to be there at ten. (Wells) 6. Don't come any nearer. You're at just the right distance. (Bennett) 7. He had taken up with it solely because he was starving. (London)
Exercise 1. State whether the boldfaced word is an adverb, a modal word, or a particle.
1. Miss Whitmore was truly taken by surprise. (Dreiser)2....the time had come in which she must speak to him truly. (Trollope)3. The hall looked exactly as it did when he used to dine there with Jack Herring. (Galsworthy)4. My mother knew so exactly how to dress. 5. You are coming right out into life — facing it all. (Wells)6. She would never persuade them that she had done right. (Wells)7. "You will be sure to come?" said Mr. Snodgrass. "Oh, certainly." (Dickens) 8. Soames smiled. Certainly Uncle James had a way with him. (Galsworthy)9. Lammlein rose. "We have fulfilled our obligations," he said pompously, and yet not quite certainly. (Heym)10. Tom, you'll manage it and if you do I'll give you something ever so nice. (Twain)
Exercise 1. Define the kinds of sentences according to the purpose of the utterance.
Laura was terribly nervous. Tossing the velvet ribbon over her shoulder, she said to a woman standing by, "Is this Mrs. Scott's house?" and the woman, smiling queerly, said, "It is, my lass." Oh, to be away from this! She actually said, "Help me God!" as she walked up the tiny path and knocked. To be away from these staring eyes, or to be covered up in anything, one of those women's shawls even! I'll just leave the basket and go, she decided. I shan't even wait for it to be emptied.
Exercise 1. Comment on the word order and explain the cases of inversion.
1. Martin Eden had been mastered by curiosity all his days. (London)2. "What did the-master say exactly?" "Well, of course, I wasn't supposed to hear." (Christie)3. Well, come on, shall I go, or shan't I? Half past three—it's quite a good time. (Christie)4 "Is Mrs Oliver at home?" asked Rhoda. (Christie)5. There was a curious expression on her face—a mingling of grim determination and of strange indecision. (Christie) 6. Yes, here he was, without Savina, on his way to total disillusion about the biggest research development of his time. (Wilson)7. Suddenly the door opened and admitted the Baron. Followed a complete and deathlike silence. (Mansfield)8. But never, never could he have anticipated that evening, some months after the birth of their child. (Cronin)9. However, not for the world would he be different from the others. (Cronin)
Exercise 1. Point out ihe coordinate clauses (mark the elliptical ones) and comment on the way they are Joined.
1. It was high summer, and the hay harvest was almost over. (Lawrence)2. All the rooms were brightly lighted, but there seemed to be complete silence in the house. (Murdoch)3. One small group was playing cards, another sat about a table and drank, or, tiring of that, adjourned to a large room to dance to the music of the victrola or player-piano, (Dreiser)4. His eyes were bloodshot and heavy, his face a deadly white, and his body bent as if with age. (Dickens)5. He only smiled, however, and there was comfort in his hearty rejoinder, for there seemed to be a whole sensible world behind it. (Priestley) 6. You'll either sail this boat correctly or you'll never go out with me again. (Dreiser)7. Time passed, and she came to no conclusion, nor did any opportunities come her way for making a closer study of Mischa. (Murdoch)8. She often enjoyed Annette's company, yet the child made her nervous. (Murdoch)
Exercise I. Use the appropriate form of the verb.
1. Cowperwood realized... that he __ making a very remarkable confession, (is, was) (Dreiser) 2. She scarcely realized what __ happening, (is, was) (Dreiser) 3. Then all at once he remembered what the program __ be. (will, would) (Warren) 4. Little Hans was very much distressed at times, as he was afraid his flowers __ think he — forgotten them, (will, would; has, had) (Wilde) 5. Rosa told herself that this __ the day that __ decide her fate, (is, was, will, would) (Murdoch) 6. She realised that he __ trying to convey to her that he __ lonely, (is, was; is, was) (Dreiser) 7. Mrs. Sohlberg felt that this __ going to be a wonderful evening, (is, was) (Dreiser) 8. He felt sure he __ sleep now. (shall, should) (Eliot)
Exercise 1. Use the verb to say or to tell.
1. "You ought to be grateful," he __ her in his light cocksure conceited manner. (Greene)2. He __ I must talk with your friend. (Marryai) 3. "Look at me, Gretta," he __ her, patting her.cheek with his hand. (CcUdxuell) 4. I __ I would write to him to-morrow. (Marryat) 5. They met some people soon after they had got inside, who __ they had been there [in the maze] for three quarters of an hour, and had had about enough of it. Harris __ them they could follow him, if they liked... They __ it was very kind of him, and fell behind, and followed. (Jerome K. Jerome)6. Harris kept on turning to the right, but it seemed a long way, and his cousin __ he supposed it was a very big maze. "Oh, one of the largest in Europe," __ Harris. (Jerome K. Jerome)7. Harris __ he thought it was a very fine maze. (Jerome K. Jerome)8. The man __ he would go and consult his master. (Jerome K. Jerome) 9. Fox __ me that you were here! (Wilson)10. She __ she would — us all about it the next time we met.